Originators, Concepts and Chronology*
Originator(s) Concept(s) Date(s)
Confucius Value-based leadership 500 B.C.
Machiavelli Power and control 1532
Lewin, Lippitt & White Autocratic vs. democratic leadership 1939
Univ. Michigan Group1 Employee centered/production centered leadership; goal achievement and group maintenance functions; peer leadership; principle of supportive relationships 1940 on
McGregor Conditions for effective leadership 1944
Ohio State Group2 Membership maintenance, interaction facilitation; leadership style measurement - consideration and initiating structure; correlates of style 1945 on
Stogdill Personal factors associated with leadership 1948
McClelland Achievement motivation 1953
Katz Leadership skills 1955
McGregor Leadership and the nature of man 1957
Argyris Personality and organization conflict 1957
Tannenbaum and Schmidt Contingencies in choosing a leadership style 1958
French and Raven Leadership power bases 1959
Blake and Mouton The Managerial Grid 1964
Bowers and Seashore Four-factor theory of leadership 1966
Fiedler Contingency theory of leadership 1967
Hersey and Blanchard Life cycle theory of leadership 1969
Reddin 3-D theory of managerial effectiveness 1970
House Path goal theory of leadership 1971
Mintzberg Managerial roles 1973
Vroom and Yetton Leading decision-making contingency model 1973
Graen and Cashman Role-making and leader-member exchange 1975
McClelland Need for power 1975
Calder Attribution theory of leadership 1977
House Charismatic theory of leadership 1977
Zaleznik Leader - manager differences 1977
Salancik & Pfeffer Power contingencies 1977
Greenleaf Servant leadership 1977
Burns Transformational leadership 1978
Hofstede Role of culture in leadership 1980
Bolman & Deal Leadership frames 1984
Schein Leadership and organizational culture 1985
Bandura Self-efficacy, empowerment 1986
Deming Deming leadership method 1986
Kouzes and Posner Five practices of exemplary leadership 1987
Conger & Kanungo Empowerment contextual factors 1988
Gardner Nature and tasks of leadership 1990
Senge Personal mastery 1990
Stayer Employee leadership 1990
Kotter Leader vs. manager behaviors 1990
Covey Principle-centered leadership 1991
Kirkpatrick and Locke Key leadership traits 1991
Wheatley Leadership and self-organizing systems 1992
Kets de Vries Leadership mystique 1994
Goleman Emotional intelligence and leadership 1998
Buckingham and Coffman Leader behaviors and organization performance 1999
Drucker Self-management 1999
Maccoby Narcissism and leadership 2000
Collins Level 5 leadership 2001
Bennis and Thomas Crucibles of leadership 2002
Bossidy and Charan Leadership and execution 2002
Goldsmith Feedforward and leadership development 2002
George Authentic leadership 2003

* Please note that these are the originators of the concepts. In a few cases the original work is actually covered by a different author. Also, the dates above represent when the concept first appeared. In some cases the date of the article that follows may be later.

1. Bowers, Cartwright, Kahn, Katz, Likert, Maccoby, Mann, Morse, Seashore, Zander et al

2. Coons, Fleishman, Halpin, Harris, Hempill, Stogdill, Winer et al