Sex and Gender: An Introduction by Hilary M. Lips
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Sex and Gender
An Introduction
Sixth Edition
Are sex and gender really two different things? How malleable is gender identity? Should we emphasize gender differences? These are only some of the questions Hilary Lips addresses regarding one of the most important dimensions of human life since time immemorial. Stereotypes, gender roles, and how social relationships function all combine to assign meanings to the male–female distinction that affects all aspects of social life. Taking advantage of the abundance of current research that reevaluates and resituates the major issues of sex and gender, the Sixth Edition collects and distills this scholarship into a book that is readily accessible and relevant to today’s readers.

Lips incorporates knowledge gained from a range of social sciences, taking a critical approach to empirical research. Throughout the book, she emphasizes culturally, racially, and sexually diverse perspectives. A discussion of the role that gender plays in social relationships and power hierarchies illuminates the experience of inequality between men and women in business, education, politics, and the media. The ideas presented in Sex and Gender will raise readers’ awareness of the issues contributing to that major social problem.
“This book is insightful, and the breadth and depth of each chapter is greatly appreciated.” — Daryl Thorne, Trinity Washington University
Table of Contents

1. Masculinity and Femininity: Myths and Stereotypes
Sex Stereotypes / Sex or Gender: More Than a Question of Terminology? / "Sugar and Spice" or "Snips and Snails": The Content of Gender Stereotypes / Beyond Personality Traits: The Many Faces of Gender Stereotypes / Different and Unequal? The Evaluative Aspects of Gender Stereotypes / Gender and Other Stereotypes: Race/Ethnicity, Class, Age, Appearance, Sexual Orientation, Disability / The Process of Stereotyping / How Gender Stereotypes and Prejudice Affect Us / Gender Stereotypes and the Research Process

2. Theoretical Perspectives on Sex and Gender
Early Theories about Sex and Gender / Psychoanalytic/Identification Theories / Social Structure/Cultural Theories of Gender / Evolutionary Theories of Gender / Biosocial Model / Social Learning Theory/Social Cognitive Theory / Cognitive Theories / Social Interaction Process Theories / Perspectives on Difference

3. Research Sex and Gender: Exploring the Whys and Hows
Asking Questions about Gender: Science and the Search for Truth / What Differences and Similarities Exist: Methods for Comparing the Sexes / Why Gender Differences Exist: Nature, Nurture, and the Interactionist Position / Biases and Pitfalls: Problems Encountered in the Study of Sex and Gender / Science and Androcentrism / A Transformational Psychology of Gender?

Part II: BEHAVIOR AND EXPERIENCE: Female–Male Similarities and Differences

4. Worlds Apart? Gender Differences in Social Behavior and Experience
Now You See It, Now You Don't: Gender Differences in Context / Gender Differences in Social Behavior: A Sampling of Current Findings / What Happened to the Differences?

5. Biology and Environment: The Process of Becoming Female or Male
The Biological Process of Sexual Differentiation / Do Physical Sex Differences Have Implications for Behavior? / Gender Roles: Variations in Normal Development / Gender Identity / Sexual Orientation

6. Perceptual and Cognitive Abilities: Gender Similarities and Differences
The Greater Male Variability Hypothesis / Gender Differences in Intellectual Performance / Explaining the Differences

7. Sexual Lives and Orientations
The Double Standard / The Physiology of Sexual Response / Sexual Activity / Explaining Gender Differences in Sexuality / Sexual Orientation / Sexuality and Power: Erotica, Pornography, and Coercive Sexuality

8. Hormonal and Reproductive Connections
The Menstrual Cycle / Hormones and the Male Experience / Pregnancy and Childbirth / Menopause

9. Mental and Physical Health: Stress, Change, and Adaptations
Vulnerability and Strength / Gender and Physical Health / Women, Men, and Mental Illness / Gender and Mental Health


10. Sex and Gender and Childhood: Constructing Gender
"Getting the Word": Sources of Early Gender Learning / Constructing an Identity: The Relational and Individual Self / Friendship / Achievemtn

11. Family and Friends: Attachment, Intimacy, and Power
Close Relationships in Adulthood / Marriage: The Intimate Economic Partnership / Women and Men as Parents

12. Economic and Political Life: Power, Status, and Achievement
Where We Are Now: A Shortage of Women at the Top / Motivation: The Driving Force? / Defining Achievement and Power / Access to Resources / Resources, Strategies, and Political Power / Power in Organizations and Institutions / Maintaining the Status Quo: How Hierarchies Perpetuate Themselves

13. Issues in the Workplace
Division of Labor by Sex / Sex Discrimination / Two Spheres in Contact: The Interaction of Family and Employment Issues / Work, Sexuality, and Power

14. Justice, Equity, and Social Change
Gender and Conceptions of Justice / Gender and the Law / Social Change: Justice for All?

Epilogue: The Ties That Bind: The Future of Sex and Gender