Hydrology and Hydraulic Systems
Fourth Edition
For more than thirty years, the multiple editions of Hydrology & Hydraulic Systems have set the standard for a comprehensive, authoritative treatment of the quantitative elements of water resources development. The latest edition extends this tradition of excellence in a thoroughly revised volume that reflects the current state of practice in the field of hydrology.

Widely praised for its direct and concise presentation, practical orientation, and wealth of example problems, Hydrology & Hydraulic Systems presents fundamental theories and concepts balanced with excellent coverage of engineering applications and design. The Fourth Edition features a major revision of the chapter on distribution systems, as well as a new chapter on the application of remote sensing and computer modeling to hydrology.

Outstanding features of the Fourth Edition include . . .
• More than 350 illustrations and 200 tables
• More than 225 fully solved examples, both in FPS and SI units
• Fully worked-out examples of design projects with realistic data
• More than 500 end-of-chapter problems for assignment
• Discussion of statistical procedures for groundwater monitoring in accordance with the EPA’s Unified Guidance
• Detailed treatment of hydrologic field investigations and analytical procedures for data assessment, including the USGS acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) approach
• Thorough coverage of theory and design of loose-boundary channels, including the latest concept of combining the regime theory and the power function laws
Hydrology & Hydraulic Systems is an excellent book. It contains many illustrative examples and also a large number of unsolved problems. This is an authoritative textbook that is excellent for the undergraduate and graduate level.” — Sudarshan Kurwadkar, California State University, Fullerton
Table of Contents
1. Demand for Water
Development of Water Resources / Assessment of Demand / Demand for Water Supply / Municipal Requirements / Population Forecasting / Short-Term Estimates / Long-Term Forecasting / Per Capita Water Usage / Fire Demands / Industrial Requirements / Waste Dilution Requirements / Demand for Irrigation Water / Consumptive Use of Crops / Effective Rainfall / Farm Losses / Conveyance Losses and Waste / Computation of Irrigation Demands / Demand for Hydropower / Demand for Navigation

2. Elements of the Hydrologic Cycle: Precipitation
Availability of Water / Hydrologic Cycle / Water Balance Equation / Discrepancy Term in the Water Balance Equation / Precipitation / Analysis of Point Precipitation Data / Conversion of Point Precipitation to Areal Precipitation / Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) Analysis of Point Precipitation / Depth-Area-Duration (DAD) Analysis of a Storm

3. Elements of the Hydrologic Cycle: Evaporation and Transpiration
Water Loss to the Atmosphere / Evaporation from Free-Water Bodies / Evaporation Using Pans / Evaporation by the Aerodynamic Method / Evaporation by the Energy Balance Method / Combination Method of Penman / Evapotranspiration from a Drainage Basin / Evapotranspirometers / Penman-Monteith Method / Blaney-Criddle Method

4. Elements of the Hydrologic Cycle: Runoff
Direct Runoff from Rainfall or Rain Excess / Infiltration Capacity Curve Approach / HEC's Nonlinear Loss-Rate Function Approach for Direct Runoff / The NRCS Approach for Direct Runoff / Infiltration-Index Approach for Direct Runoff / Direct Runoff from Snowmelt

5. Theory of Groundwater Flow
Scope / Classification of Subsurface Water / Water-Bearing Formations / Fluid Potential and Hydraulic Head / Basic Equation of Groundwater Flow: Darcy's Law / Parameters of Groundwater Movement / Parameters of Groundwater Storage / Generalization of Darcy's Law / Steady-State Flow and Unsteady-State Flow / General Equation of Groundwater Flow / An Overview of the Groundwater Flow Equation / Unsaturated Flow and Two-Phase Flow

6. Applications and Development of Groundwater Flow
Steady-State Flow Equations / Unsteady-State Flow Equations / Unsteady-State Analysis of Confined Aquifers / Unsteady-State Analysis of Confined Aquifers: Cooper-Jacob Method / Unsteady-State Analysis of Unconfined Aquifers / Semiconfined Aquifers: The Theory of Leaky Aquifers / Wells Near Boundaries: The Theory of Images / Production Well Analysis / Well Field Design

7. Contaminant Transport and Groundwater Monitoring
Transport Processes / Mass Transport Equations / Solutions of the Mass Transport Equation / Fate of Contaminants / Aqueous Phase or Soluble Contaminants / Immiscible or Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (NAPL) / Saline Water Intrusion / Analysis of Groundwater Monitoring Data / Checking Data Fitness for Statistical Procedures / Tests for Lognormality/Normality / Testing for Statistical Independence / Checking for Equality of Variances across Well Groups / Statistical Procedures for Groundwater Monitoring / Strategies for Procedure Selection / Tolerance Interval Technique / Prediction Interval Technique / Control Charts / Confidence Interval Technique / Non-Parametric Intervals

8. Measurement of Surface Water Flow
Determination of Streamflow / Stream Gaging / Stage Measurement / Discharge Measurement / Measurement by Current Meter / Velocity Distribution in a Stream Section / Mean Vertical Velocity / Measurement of Velocity by Current Meter / Measurement of Depth (Sounding) for Current Meter Method / Air Correction for Depth for Sounding Reel Line / Wet-Line Correction for Depth for Sounding Reel Line / Computation of Discharge for Current Meter Method / Discharge Measurement by Hydroacoustic System / Basic Concepts of the ADCP / Discharge Measurement by Ultrasonic (Acoustic) Velocity Meter (UVM) / Discharge Measurement by the Electromagnetic Method / Measurements through Hydraulic Devices / Discharge Rating / Simple Stage-Discharge Relation / Determining the Stage of Zero Flow / Equation of Stage-Discharge Curve / Slope-Stage-Discharge Relation / Velocity Index-Stage-Discharge Relation / Stage versus Cross-Sectional Area Relation / Index-Velocity versus Mean Velocity / Discharge from Stage and Index-Velocity Data / Converting Stage Records into Discharge / Dissemination of Streamflow Information

9. Estimation of Surface Water Flow: Hydrograph Analysis
Runoff and Streamflow / Mechanism of Runoff Generation / Techniques of Streamflow Estimation / Hydrological Processes in Streamflow Estimation / Hydrograph Analysis for Estimation of Streamflow / Direct Runoff Hydrograph and Baseflow Hydrograph / Hydrograph Separation / Unit Hydrograph and Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph / Derivation of Unit Hydrograph / Changing the Unit Hydrograph Duration / Formulation of Synthetic Unit Hydrograph / Estimation of Streamflow from Unit Hydrograph

10. Estimation of Surface Water Flow: Streamflow Relationships
Correlation Techniques / Stationary and Homogeneous Check of Data / Precipitation-Runoff Correlation for Estimation of Streamflow / Correlation of Gaging-Station Records for Estimation of Streamflow / Synthetic Techniques / Hydrologic Time Series and Stochastic Process / Markov Process or Autoregressive (AR) Model / Autoregressive-Moving Average (ARMA) Model / Disaggregation Model / Autorun Model / Estimation of Streamflow at Ungaged Sites / Estimation Based on Drainage Area Ratio / Estimation Based on Regression Equations / The Hydraulic Geometry of Stream Channels / Variability of Streamflow

11. Computation of Extreme Flows
Computation Methods / The Concept of Probability in Hydrology / Design Flood for Hydraulic Structures / Statistical Methods / Type and Quality of Data / Methods of Flood-Frequency Analysis / Graphical Method / Empirical Method / Analytical Method / Approach to Analytical Method / Generalized Skew Coefficient / Confidence Limits and Probability Adjustments / Special Cases of Flood-Frequency Analysis / Computation of Peak Flow from Precipitation / Estimation of PMP / Development of PMS / Design Storm / Peak Snowmelt Discharge / Regionalized Flood Relations for Ungaged Sites / Flood Flow Computation by Genetic and Empirical Equations / Measurement of Peak Discharge by Indirect Methods / Computation of Low Flow / Low-Flow Frequency Analysis by the Empirical Method / Low-Flow Frequency Analysis by Analytical Method

12. Hydrodynamic Principles, Kinematics and Flow Routing
Hydrodynamic Equations of Flow / The Continuity Equation / The Energy Equation / The Momentum Equation / Applications of the Hydrodynamic Principles / Kinematic Wave Theory / Formulation of Hydrograph by the Kinematic Theory / Routing Process / Hydraulic Routing / Streamflow Routing by the Kinematic Theory / Muskingum-Cunge Kinematic Routing Method / Validity of the Kinematic Theory of Routing / Hydrologic Routing / Streamflow Routing by the Hydrologic Method: Muskingum Method / Reservoir Routing by the Hydrologic Method: The Puls Method / Hydraulic Transients

13. Hydraulic Structures
Hydraulic Structures / Flow-Measuring Structures / Orifices and Mouthpieces / Weirs and Notches / Flow over Broad-Crested Weirs / Flumes / Pipe-Flow Measuring Devices / Peak-Flow Measuring Structures / Storage Structures / Reservoir Storage Capacity / Storage Capacity of Water Supply Tanks / Reservoir Features / Dams / Flow Control Structures: Spillways / Overflow Spillways / Chute or Trough Spillways / Side-Channel Spillways / Morning Glory or Shaft Spillways

14. Conveyance Systems: Open Channel Flow
Introduction / Elements of the Channel Section / Types of Flow / State of Flow / Critical Flow Condition / Uniform Channel Flow / Channel Design / Rigid Channel Carrying Sediment-Free Water / Rigid Channel Carrying Sediment-Laden Water / Loose-Boundary Channel Carrying Sediment-Free Water / Loose-Boundary Channel Carrying Sediment-Laden Water / Gradually Varied Flow / Computation of Flow Profile / Rapidly Varied Flow / Hydraulic Jump

15. Distribution Systems
Distribution System Components / Piping System / Energy Equation of Pipe Flow / Pipe Friction Losses: Darcy-Weisbach Equation / Application of the Darcy-Weisbach Equation / Pipe Friction Losses: Hazen-Williams Equation / Summary of Friction Losses / Minor Head Losses / Single Pipelines / Single Pipelines with Pumps / Pipes in Series / Pipes in Parallel / Branching Pipes / Pipes Network / Pipe Network Design / A Network Design Project / Hydraulic Transients in Pipes / Storage Tanks / Capacity of Storage Tanks / Hydraulics of Storage Tanks / Pumps / Pump Classification: Specific Speed / Relations for Geometrically Similar Pumps / Relations for Alterations in the Same Pump / Head Terms in Pumping / System Head Curve / Pump Characteristic Curves / Single Pump and Pipeline System / Multiple Pump System / Pumps in Series / Pumps in Parallel / Limit on Pump Location

16. Urban Drainage Systems
Types of Drainage Systems / Layout of an Urban Drainage System / Design of a Sanitary Sewer System / Quantity of Wastewater / Friction Coefficient for Sanitary Sewers / Design Procedure for Sanitary Sewers / A Sanitary Sewer Project / Design of a Storm Sewer System / Quantity of Stormwater / Rational Method / Application of the Rational Method / The NRCS (SCS) TR-55 Method / A Storm Sewer Design Project / Detention Basin Storage Capacity

17. Other Drainage Systems
Agricultural Drainage Systems / Surface Drainage for Agricultural Land / Subsurface Drainage for Agricultural Land / Depth and Spacing of Drains / Roadway Drainage Systems / Longitudinal Drainage Systems / Cross-Drainage Systems: Culverts / Airport Drainage Systems

18. Remote Sensing and Computer Modeling in Hydrology
Remote Sensing / Principles of Remote Sensing / Components of Remote Sensing / Integration of Remote Sensing with GIS / Remote Sensing of Hydrologic Elements / Remote-Sensing Applications to Hydrology / Computer Models for Hydrology / Computer Models of Watershed Hydrology / Statistical Models / Hydraulic Models / Reservoir Planning and Analysis Models / Coastal Models / Flood Flow Models / Drainage Models / Coupling of Hydrological Models and GIS

Appendix A: Length, Area, Volume, and Other Equivalents
Appendix B: Other Useful Conversion Factors
Appendix C: Physical Properties of Water
Appendix D: Physical Properties of Air
Appendix E: Values of the Error Function
Appendix F: Coefficients an-i + 1 for the Shapiro-Wilk Test of Normality
Appendix G: Cumulative Student t Distribution
Appendix H: Cumulative F Distribution
Appendix I: Coefficients for Calculating Normal Distribution
Appendix J: Values of H? = H0.05 and H1 - ? = H0.95

Answers to Selected Problems