Hydrology and Hydraulic Systems

Fourth Edition

For more than 25 years, the multiple editions of *Hydrology & Hydraulic Systems* have set the standard for a comprehensive, authoritative treatment of the quantitative elements of water resources development. The latest edition extends this tradition of excellence in a thoroughly revised volume that reflects the current state of practice in the field of hydrology.

Widely praised for its direct and concise presentation, practical orientation, and wealth of example problems, *Hydrology & Hydraulic Systems* presents fundamental theories and concepts balanced with excellent coverage of engineering applications and design. The Fourth Edition features a major revision of the chapter on distribution systems, as well as a new chapter on the application of remote sensing and computer modeling to hydrology.

Outstanding features of the Fourth Edition include . . .

• More than 350 illustrations and 200 tables

• More than 225 fully solved examples, both in FPS and SI units

• Fully worked-out examples of design projects with realistic data

• More than 500 end-of-chapter problems for assignment

• Discussion of statistical procedures for groundwater monitoring in accordance with the EPA’s *Unified Guidance*

• Detailed treatment of hydrologic field investigations and analytical procedures for data assessment, including the USGS acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) approach

• Thorough coverage of theory and design of loose-boundary channels, including the latest concept of combining the regime theory and the power function laws

“*Hydrology & Hydraulic Systems* is an excellent book. It contains many illustrative examples and also a large number of unsolved problems. This is an authoritative textbook that is excellent for the undergraduate and graduate level.” — Sudarshan Kurwadkar, *California State University, Fullerton*

**1. Demand for Water**

Development of Water Resources / Assessment of Demand / Demand for Water Supply / Municipal Requirements / Population Forecasting / Short-Term Estimates / Long-Term Forecasting / Per Capita Water Usage / Fire Demands / Industrial Requirements / Waste Dilution Requirements / Demand for Irrigation Water / Consumptive Use of Crops / Effective Rainfall / Farm Losses / Conveyance Losses and Waste / Computation of Irrigation Demands / Demand for Hydropower / Demand for Navigation

**2. Elements of the Hydrologic Cycle: Precipitation**

Availability of Water / Hydrologic Cycle / Water Balance Equation / Discrepancy Term in the Water Balance Equation / Precipitation / Analysis of Point Precipitation Data / Conversion of Point Precipitation to Areal Precipitation / Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) Analysis of Point Precipitation / Depth-Area-Duration (DAD) Analysis of a Storm

**3. Elements of the Hydrologic Cycle: Evaporation and Transpiration**

Water Loss to the Atmosphere / Evaporation from Free-Water Bodies / Evaporation Using Pans / Evaporation by the Aerodynamic Method / Evaporation by the Energy Balance Method / Combination Method of Penman / Evapotranspiration from a Drainage Basin / Evapotranspirometers / Penman-Monteith Method / Blaney-Criddle Method

**4. Elements of the Hydrologic Cycle: Runoff**

Direct Runoff from Rainfall or Rain Excess / Infiltration Capacity Curve Approach / HEC's Nonlinear Loss-Rate Function Approach for Direct Runoff / The NRCS Approach for Direct Runoff / Infiltration-Index Approach for Direct Runoff / Direct Runoff from Snowmelt

**5. Theory of Groundwater Flow**

Scope / Classification of Subsurface Water / Water-Bearing Formations / Fluid Potential and Hydraulic Head / Basic Equation of Groundwater Flow: Darcy's Law / Parameters of Groundwater Movement / Parameters of Groundwater Storage / Generalization of Darcy's Law / Steady-State Flow and Unsteady-State Flow / General Equation of Groundwater Flow / An Overview of the Groundwater Flow Equation / Unsaturated Flow and Two-Phase Flow

**6. Applications and Development of Groundwater Flow**

Steady-State Flow Equations / Unsteady-State Flow Equations / Unsteady-State Analysis of Confined Aquifers / Unsteady-State Analysis of Confined Aquifers: Cooper-Jacob Method / Unsteady-State Analysis of Unconfined Aquifers / Semiconfined Aquifers: The Theory of Leaky Aquifers / Wells Near Boundaries: The Theory of Images / Production Well Analysis / Well Field Design

**7. Contaminant Transport and Groundwater Monitoring**

Transport Processes / Mass Transport Equations / Solutions of the Mass Transport Equation / Fate of Contaminants / Aqueous Phase or Soluble Contaminants / Immiscible or Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (NAPL) / Saline Water Intrusion / Analysis of Groundwater Monitoring Data / Checking Data Fitness for Statistical Procedures / Tests for Lognormality/Normality / Testing for Statistical Independence / Checking for Equality of Variances across Well Groups / Statistical Procedures for Groundwater Monitoring / Strategies for Procedure Selection / Tolerance Interval Technique / Prediction Interval Technique / Control Charts / Confidence Interval Technique / Non-Parametric Intervals

**8. Measurement of Surface Water Flow**

Determination of Streamflow / Stream Gaging / Stage Measurement / Discharge Measurement / Measurement by Current Meter / Velocity Distribution in a Stream Section / Mean Vertical Velocity / Measurement of Velocity by Current Meter / Measurement of Depth (Sounding) for Current Meter Method / Air Correction for Depth for Sounding Reel Line / Wet-Line Correction for Depth for Sounding Reel Line / Computation of Discharge for Current Meter Method / Discharge Measurement by Hydroacoustic System / Basic Concepts of the ADCP / Discharge Measurement by Ultrasonic (Acoustic) Velocity Meter (UVM) / Discharge Measurement by the Electromagnetic Method / Measurements through Hydraulic Devices / Discharge Rating / Simple Stage-Discharge Relation / Determining the Stage of Zero Flow / Equation of Stage-Discharge Curve / Slope-Stage-Discharge Relation / Velocity Index-Stage-Discharge Relation / Stage versus Cross-Sectional Area Relation / Index-Velocity versus Mean Velocity / Discharge from Stage and Index-Velocity Data / Converting Stage Records into Discharge / Dissemination of Streamflow Information

**9. Estimation of Surface Water Flow: Hydrograph Analysis**

Runoff and Streamflow / Mechanism of Runoff Generation / Techniques of Streamflow Estimation / Hydrological Processes in Streamflow Estimation / Hydrograph Analysis for Estimation of Streamflow / Direct Runoff Hydrograph and Baseflow Hydrograph / Hydrograph Separation / Unit Hydrograph and Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph / Derivation of Unit Hydrograph / Changing the Unit Hydrograph Duration / Formulation of Synthetic Unit Hydrograph / Estimation of Streamflow from Unit Hydrograph

**10. Estimation of Surface Water Flow: Streamflow Relationships**

Correlation Techniques / Stationary and Homogeneous Check of Data / Precipitation-Runoff Correlation for Estimation of Streamflow / Correlation of Gaging-Station Records for Estimation of Streamflow / Synthetic Techniques / Hydrologic Time Series and Stochastic Process / Markov Process or Autoregressive (AR) Model / Autoregressive-Moving Average (ARMA) Model / Disaggregation Model / Autorun Model / Estimation of Streamflow at Ungaged Sites / Estimation Based on Drainage Area Ratio / Estimation Based on Regression Equations / The Hydraulic Geometry of Stream Channels / Variability of Streamflow

**11. Computation of Extreme Flows**

Computation Methods / The Concept of Probability in Hydrology / Design Flood for Hydraulic Structures / Statistical Methods / Type and Quality of Data / Methods of Flood-Frequency Analysis / Graphical Method / Empirical Method / Analytical Method / Approach to Analytical Method / Generalized Skew Coefficient / Confidence Limits and Probability Adjustments / Special Cases of Flood-Frequency Analysis / Computation of Peak Flow from Precipitation / Estimation of PMP / Development of PMS / Design Storm / Peak Snowmelt Discharge / Regionalized Flood Relations for Ungaged Sites / Flood Flow Computation by Genetic and Empirical Equations / Measurement of Peak Discharge by Indirect Methods / Computation of Low Flow / Low-Flow Frequency Analysis by the Empirical Method / Low-Flow Frequency Analysis by Analytical Method

**12. Hydrodynamic Principles, Kinematics and Flow Routing**

Hydrodynamic Equations of Flow / The Continuity Equation / The Energy Equation / The Momentum Equation / Applications of the Hydrodynamic Principles / Kinematic Wave Theory / Formulation of Hydrograph by the Kinematic Theory / Routing Process / Hydraulic Routing / Streamflow Routing by the Kinematic Theory / Muskingum-Cunge Kinematic Routing Method / Validity of the Kinematic Theory of Routing / Hydrologic Routing / Streamflow Routing by the Hydrologic Method: Muskingum Method / Reservoir Routing by the Hydrologic Method: The Puls Method / Hydraulic Transients

**13. Hydraulic Structures**

Hydraulic Structures / Flow-Measuring Structures / Orifices and Mouthpieces / Weirs and Notches / Flow over Broad-Crested Weirs / Flumes / Pipe-Flow Measuring Devices / Peak-Flow Measuring Structures / Storage Structures / Reservoir Storage Capacity / Storage Capacity of Water Supply Tanks / Reservoir Features / Dams / Flow Control Structures: Spillways / Overflow Spillways / Chute or Trough Spillways / Side-Channel Spillways / Morning Glory or Shaft Spillways

**14. Conveyance Systems: Open Channel Flow**

Introduction / Elements of the Channel Section / Types of Flow / State of Flow / Critical Flow Condition / Uniform Channel Flow / Channel Design / Rigid Channel Carrying Sediment-Free Water / Rigid Channel Carrying Sediment-Laden Water / Loose-Boundary Channel Carrying Sediment-Free Water / Loose-Boundary Channel Carrying Sediment-Laden Water / Gradually Varied Flow / Computation of Flow Profile / Rapidly Varied Flow / Hydraulic Jump

**15. Distribution Systems**

Distribution System Components / Piping System / Energy Equation of Pipe Flow / Pipe Friction Losses: Darcy-Weisbach Equation / Application of the Darcy-Weisbach Equation / Pipe Friction Losses: Hazen-Williams Equation / Summary of Friction Losses / Minor Head Losses / Single Pipelines / Single Pipelines with Pumps / Pipes in Series / Pipes in Parallel / Branching Pipes / Pipes Network / Pipe Network Design / A Network Design Project / Hydraulic Transients in Pipes / Storage Tanks / Capacity of Storage Tanks / Hydraulics of Storage Tanks / Pumps / Pump Classification: Specific Speed / Relations for Geometrically Similar Pumps / Relations for Alterations in the Same Pump / Head Terms in Pumping / System Head Curve / Pump Characteristic Curves / Single Pump and Pipeline System / Multiple Pump System / Pumps in Series / Pumps in Parallel / Limit on Pump Location

**16. Urban Drainage Systems**

Types of Drainage Systems / Layout of an Urban Drainage System / Design of a Sanitary Sewer System / Quantity of Wastewater / Friction Coefficient for Sanitary Sewers / Design Procedure for Sanitary Sewers / A Sanitary Sewer Project / Design of a Storm Sewer System / Quantity of Stormwater / Rational Method / Application of the Rational Method / The NRCS (SCS) TR-55 Method / A Storm Sewer Design Project / Detention Basin Storage Capacity

**17. Other Drainage Systems**

Agricultural Drainage Systems / Surface Drainage for Agricultural Land / Subsurface Drainage for Agricultural Land / Depth and Spacing of Drains / Roadway Drainage Systems / Longitudinal Drainage Systems / Cross-Drainage Systems: Culverts / Airport Drainage Systems

**18. Remote Sensing and Computer Modeling in Hydrology**

Remote Sensing / Principles of Remote Sensing / Components of Remote Sensing / Integration of Remote Sensing with GIS / Remote Sensing of Hydrologic Elements / Remote-Sensing Applications to Hydrology / Computer Models for Hydrology / Computer Models of Watershed Hydrology / Statistical Models / Hydraulic Models / Reservoir Planning and Analysis Models / Coastal Models / Flood Flow Models / Drainage Models / Coupling of Hydrological Models and GIS

Appendix A: Length, Area, Volume, and Other Equivalents

Appendix B: Other Useful Conversion Factors

Appendix C: Physical Properties of Water

Appendix D: Physical Properties of Air

Appendix E: Values of the Error Function

Appendix F: Coefficients *a*_{n-i} + 1 for the Shapiro-Wilk Test of Normality

Appendix G: Cumulative Student *t* Distribution

Appendix H: Cumulative *F* Distribution

Appendix I: Coefficients for Calculating Normal Distribution

Appendix J: Values of *H*_{?} = *H*_{0.05} and *H*_{1 - ?} = *H*_{0.95}

Answers to Selected Problems